Darker Skin, Harsher Sentence

A wealth of sociological research documents how Blacks are disadvantaged by the criminal justice system, from higher likelihood of being stopped by police to much higher rates of incarceration. In a recent American Journal of Sociology article, Ryan King and Brian Johnson extend that knowledge by investigating whether and how skin tone and “Afrocentric” phenotypical characteristics affect sentencing outcomes.

The authors gained access to a unique data source of booking photos linked to sentencing records for over 800 Black and White male felony defendants in Minnesota’s Twin Cities. The men were charged with a range of violent, drug, and property crimes. In their effort to go beyond color and skin tone to understand racism, the researchers coded the photos for skin tone as well as “Afrocentric” features (including a broad nose, wide lips, and coarse hair) and overall “Afro-” vs. “Eurocentric” features, all on a seven-point scale. Type of sentence (imprisonment; a stayed sentence only be served if the defendant violates the terms of his probation; or no prison sentence) and sentence length serve as the study’s “outcome variables,” and the authors’ final analysis included control variables such as the offender’s criminal history, crime type, and county.

The authors found that although skin tone and facial features do not affect the length of prison sentences, they do affect whether an offender receives a prison sentence. This is a critical contribution, because prior research on skin tone and sentencing has only looked at incarcerated prisoners without comparing them to defendants who avoided imprisonment. Additionally, they note that White men with darker skin and more Afrocentric features were apparently penalized for resembling Black men and were more likely than other White men to receive a prison sentence. Taken together, the authors believe the particularly harsh treatment of the most dark-skinned, African-looking men may actually drive the deep Black-White disparity in incarceration.

Comments 1

脱毛サロン

January 14, 2017

女子の腕の毛は注目されます。ムダ毛処理は現代では当たり前。専門店での脱毛の探し方を特集しました。自宅での一時しのぎはもう古い話です。皮膚を傷つけるし、肌が黒くなる原因にもなります。さらにはトラブルときれいな肌になるのにタイムラグもかかります。追い打ちをかけて汚れた肌を見るのは沈みますね。悲しいですよね。そんなわけでサロンの脱毛。エステの完璧な脱毛で肌荒れもほぼなく透き通るスベスベ肌を目指せます。毛深い人だって平気です。毛深い人でも追加料金なんてないのがありがたいです。何より、剛毛ほどに脱毛できてる実感が感じやすいのもいいところです。剛毛を見られるのがどきどきするという方もいるようですが社員の方は気にしてないです。なぜってすごい数の会員を相手にしてるから考えてる暇はないんです。心配は無用ってことです。素肌がつるつるだと何より堂々と素肌を出せるのが嬉しいです。ムダ毛処理って終わると本当にいいですよ。キャン割で申込むと格安に脱毛できるから是非、試してみて欲しいです。勧誘が不愉快だという方もいますが、今どきはいうほどはひどくないみたいです。そんなのは意識しないでOKでしょう。剛毛を自宅できれいにする手間ひまがせつないですよー。楽しましょう。


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